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Ms. Valentine

Ms. Valentine

Abbey Lane Elementary School: (516) 434-7400

Ms. Valentine : Social Studies

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Social Studies
adapt to change in order to fit new conditions
archipelago a group or chain of islands clustered together in a sea or ocean
bay an inlet of a body of water (as the sea) that is usually smaller than a gulf
biome a major type of ecological community
bodies of water
all the different sizes and shapes of water naturally found on the Earth’s surface. Oceans, seas, bays, lakes, rivers, and ponds are examples of bodies of water.
border the location where one place touches another place at the boundary
cardinal directions north, south, east, and west
Central America southern part of North America extending from southern border of Mexico to northwestern Colombia
climate local weather conditions of an area like temperature, precipitation, humidity, sunshine, wind and other conditions.
coast the land next to the ocean
communication ways people send and receive messages thereby linking people and places.
compass rose a symbol that shows the directions: north, south, east, and west
coniferous trees trees that always maintain either leaves or needles at all seasons of the year
continent a very large body of land
coordinate the point on a map or globe where a line of latitude and longitude cross.
decidious trees trees whose leaves fall off at the end of the season
degrees the unit of measurement used for lines of latitude and longitude
delta a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in the delta. A delta is often (but not always) shaped like a triangle (hence its name, delta, a Greek letter that is shaped like a triangle).
desert an area with less than ten inches of rain per year and a rocky, sandy surface
eastern hemisphere the half of Earth east of the Prime Meridian
environment the geographic characteristics that surround and affect the way people live.
environment concerns/issues interests people have about the care of the natural environment.
forest an area where coniferous and deciduous trees are the most dominant plant Deciduous trees shed their leaves in the fall. Coniferous trees include trees that have pinecones, such as fir and spruce.
geographic characteristics things that distinguish one place from another. These are divided into two groups (physical and human - next definitions)
geography study of Earth and how people live on Earth and use its resources
grasslands flat or rolling areas of land covered with grasses If located in North America, they are called prairies. In South America they are called pampas.
grid system the pattern of lines that help locate places on a map or globe; for example, latitude and longitude.
gulf a large body of water that cuts deep into the land
hemisphere half of the globe or half of Earth. The four hemispheres are Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western.
human characteristics describe the people of the place past or present, their human-made features (buildings, etc.), languages, religions, economic activities, and political systems.
human/environmental interaction
explains how people live in their environment
human-made features changes people have made to the land. These changes include buildings, bridges, tunnels, railroad tracks, dams, monuments, piers, farm fields.
intermediate directions directions between the cardinal directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, northwest.
island a piece of land that has water all around it
isthmus a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. An isthmus has water on two sides.
lake a body of salt or fresh water that is surrounded by land
landform map a map that shows the shape of the land, such as mountains and hills
landforms the different shapes of Earth’s surface. Mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, valleys, peninsulas, and islands are examples of landforms.
Latin America the entire Western Hemisphere south of the United States.
latitude/longitude imaginary lines on a map or globe that measure distance north and south of the Equator and distance east and west of the prime meridian.
legend/key explains the meaning of the symbols on the map.
map a graphic model of the earth or a part of the earth that is drawn on a flat surface.
map author the person or company that made the map.
map date the year in which the map was made.
map elements the parts of a map that make it usable.
map title the heading of the map that tells what the map shows.
marsh an area of soft wet land usually overgrown by grasses
migrate/migration/immigration to move from one country or region to another with the intent of staying at the place for a long period of time.
modify to change to meet the wants of people.
mountains A land form that is very high and steep. They usually are wide at the bottom and rise to a narrow peak or ridge. Geographers classify a mountain as land that rises at least 2000 feet above sea level.A number of mountains next to each other make up a mountain range.
natural environment the physical setting of a place including the land, air, water, plants, and animals.
North America continent comprising Greenland, United States, Mexico, Central America
northern hemisphere the half of Earth north of the Equator
ocean a large body of saltwater
peninsula a piece of land nearly surrounded by water or sticking out into the water
physical characteristics describe the natural environment of the place. They include physical features (landforms and bodies of water), weather and climate, soil, vegetation, and animal life.
physical map a map that shows landforms
plains large areas of flat lands
plateau high, flat land
political map a map that shows boundaries
population growth the increase in the number of people living in a place due to migration, immigration and/or births.
Prime Meridian the line of longitude from the South Pole to the North Pole measured in degrees. It divides Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
province an administrative district or division of a country
rainforest a dense, either tropical or temperate forest that receives lots of rain year round
region an area that has one or more geographic characteristics in common, such as the Amazon Rain Forest.
relative distance the approximate distance of a place in relationship to other places (i.e. near and far).
resources things people can use, such as oil, lumber, and water
river flow of water that goes to an ocean or lake
scale the measurement on a map or globe that shows the distance between places.
settlement the arrangement of places where people live, including rural and urban centers.
South America continent comprising land from Panama to Cape Horn
southern hemisphere the half of the Earth south of the Equator
strait a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
symbols the pictures, shapes, or colors on a map that stand for objects, places, or people.
technology skills methods, tools, machines and other things used to perform activities. Technology changes over time and affects the way we live, work, and play.
transportation ways goods and people move from place to place thereby linking communities.
tropics the area on the earth between the 23 ½ degrees N and 23 ½ S lines of latitude, where the climate is almost always hot.
tundra a cold, dry region covered with snow for more than half the year; a vast treeless plain where the subsoil is always frozen.
valley area of low land with mountains or hills on either side, often having a river or stream along the bottom
vegetation all the plant life found in an area.
western hemisphere the half of the earth comprising North and South America and their surrounding waters west of the Prime Meridian.