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Ms. Kaya

MacArthur High School: (516) 434-7225 | Division Ave. High School School: (516) 434-7150

Ms. Kaya

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Wars - Causes and Effects

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Wars - Causes and Effects
War Charts
APUSH                              War Chart: French & Indian War
Years:
 
1754-1763
Ohio River Valley, Great Lakes Area, Canada
Causes:
 
-Competing claims by Virginia/Pennsylvania, France, & Six Iroquois Nations
-French began building Forts in the Ohio Valley
-VA sent George Washington to persuade French to leave-French troops drove Washington back to VA
-British dispatched General Braddock and 1000 regular troops to seize Fort Duquesne
Sides:
 
British & Colonists v French & Indians
 
 
Battles:
 
-Braddock’s defeat at Fort Duquesne (1755) (Braddock’s troops ambushed by Indians-Braddock killed)
-British capture Fort Duquesne (1758)
-British capture Louisbourg (French Fortress)
-Fall of Quebec (1759)
 
 
-Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)-led to Proclamation of 1763
 
Key People:
 
-George Washington-defeat at Fort Duquesne
-General Edward Braddock-defeat at Fort Duquesne (British)
-William Pitt (British Secretary of State)
-General Jeffery Amherst-Fall of Fort Duquesne & Louisbourg (British)
-General James Wolfe-fall of Quebec & Louisbourg (British)
-King George III (gains throne in 1760)
 
 
Key Terms:
 
Albany Plan of the Union
Salutary Neglect
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
Treaty of Paris
-France gave up all claims east of the Mississippi except New Orleans
-France ceded the Louisiana Territory to Spain (sold back to France in 1800)
-British have control of Canada
 
-Colonists begin to rely on each other
-Britain has great war debt and begins taxing colonists (end of Salutary neglect; use of Mercantilism)
-Pontiac’s Rebellion will lead to the British leaving 10,000 British soldiers in the Ohio River Valley & Great Lakes regions
-will lead to causes of American Revolution
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: American Revolution
Years:
 
1775-1783
New England, Canada, Middle Colonies, Southern Colonies, Frontier
 
 
 
Causes:
 
v  British Action                                                Colonial Response
Proclamation of 1763
Sugar Act 1764
Quartering Act 1765
Stamp Act 1765                                             No taxation without representation
                                                                        Sons & Daughters of Liberty (tar &                                                                                 
                                                                  Feather)
                                                                  Boycotts of British goods
Declaratory Act-1766 (Britain can tax &make laws in all cases)
Townshend Acts-1767 (tax on tea, glass, paper that was used to pay British crown officials in the colonies-colonial assemblies used to pay these)
Boston Massacre-1770                            Committees of Corespondance-1772
                                                                  Gaspee Affair-1772
Tea Act-1773                                            Boston Tea Party-1773
Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts-1774 (closed Boston Harbor, reduced power of Mass. Legislature while increasing power of royal governor, royal officials accused of crimes could be tried in England instead of the colonies, expanded the quartering act)
Quebec Act-1774 (Roman Catholicism official religion of Quebec, extended Quebec’s border to Ohio River)
 
 
v  The Enlightenment (Montesquieu, Locke, Hobbes)
v  The 3 Great Cries (Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act)-Intolerable Acts were a response to the Tea Party)                                         
 
 
v  Colonies & French v British
v  Advantages of the Colonists
o   Knowledge of Land
o   More Committed
o   French Assistance       
       Thanks to Ben Franklin
 
v  Advantages of the British
o   Superior Navy
o   Well Structured
o   More Money
o   Better Equipment
 
Battles:
 
Lexington & Concord (Patriots/Minutemen v L.C. Smith)
Fort Ticonderoga (Allen/Arnold v Delaplace)
Bunker’s Hill (Putnam v Howe)
British take New York City (Washington v Howe & Cornwallis)
Trenton (Washington v Hessians)
Princeton (Washington v Cornwallis)
Saratoga (Gates/Arnold v Burgoyne)
Cowpens (Morgan v Tarleton)
Yorktown (Washington v Cornwallis)
Key People:
 
-Benedict Arnold (Fort Ticonderoga)
-Ethan Allen (Fort Ticonderoga)
-Nathaniel Greene, Robert Howe, Anthony Knox, General Washington (New York, NJ, Pennsylvania)
-Guerilla Fighters-Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens, Francis Marion “Swamp Fox” (South Carolina & Georgia)
-Daniel Boone (Frontier-against Colonists & British-aided Native Americans)
 
-Marquis de La Fayette-French General who fought with Americans
-Jeffrey Amherst-British Commander in Chief
-General Jon Burgoyne (Saratoga)
-General Charles Cornwallis
 
 
Loyalists
Patriots-Minutemen
Minutemen
John Dickinson
Patrick Henry
John Adams
George Washington
Thomas Paine
 
Key Terms:
 
1st Continental Congress (Sept. 1774)
2nd Continental Congress (May 1775)
Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
v  Treaty of Paris 1783--Diplomats-Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
v  U.S. colonies, from S Canada to N Florida, become independent from Great Britain
v  Mississippi River is Western boundary
v  Articles of Confederation 1781(1777)-1789
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: War of 1812
Years:
 
1812-1814
Canada, Naval War, Chesapeake Campaign, Southern Campaign
Causes:
 
British Impressment
British arming the Native Americans
Sides:
 
US v British
 
Battles:
 
Battle of Tippecanoe (WH Harrison) 1811
 
 
Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry) 1813
Burning of Washington, D.C. 1814
Battle of Fort McHenry-kept British from attacking Baltimore 1814
Battle of Thames River (William Henry Harrison)-Tecumseh killed 1813
Battle of Lake Champlain (Thomas Macdonough) 1814
Horseshoe Bend (Andrew Jackson)-ended power of British ally the Creek Nation 1814
Battle of New Orleans 1815
 
Key People:
 
James Madison-President
War Hawks (Clay & Calhoun)
Francis Scott Key
Tecumseh
The Prophet (Tecumseh’s brother)
William Henry Harrison
Oliver Hazard Perry
Andrew Jackson “Old Hickory”
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
Hartford Convention (evolved from Essex Junto) 1814
Non Intercourse Act
Macon’s Bill Number 2
“Mr. Madison’s War”
Nationalism
Era of Good Feelings
Star Spangled Banner
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-restored the status quo ante bellum (state of things before the war)
- No territory changed hands
-weakens Native American resistance to US Gov.
-Americans begin expanding West
-Post war Panic (Panic of 1819)-BUS had expired in 1811
-Nationalism (Federalists have died)-Era of Good Feelings
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Texan War for Independence
Years:
 
1835-1836
Mexico
Causes:
 
-Manifest Destiny
-Mexico offered opportunity for American settlers to farm Northern part of Texas
-In 1830, Mexico closed further immigration
Sides:
 
US. (Texans) v Mexico
 
 
 
Battles:
 
Alamo (March 1836)
San Jacinto (April 1836)
 
 
 
Key People:
 
Andrew Jackson-President
Stephen Austin
Sam Houston
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Davey Crockett
Lt. Colonel William Travis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
“Remember the Alamo” (Houston’s cry at San Jacinto)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
-Houston forced Santa Anna to sign treaty recognizing Texas Independence
-Texas becomes independent from Mexico
-Texas won’t become a state until 1845 (slavery debate)
 
 
 
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Mexican American War
Years:
 
1846-1848
Mexico, California
Causes:
 
-Manifest Destiny
-Texas becomes a state in 1845
-Border dispute (Rio Grande vs. Nueces River)
                 -when the US congress annexed Texas, Polk sent John Slidell to gain           Mexican recognition of annexation of Texas and to make the border the Rio Grande/offer $25 Million for California & New Mexico—Mexican government refused
-Polk ordered Zachary Taylor to move South to the Rio Grande, hoping to provoke Mexican attack

Sides:
 
U.S. v Mexico
 
 
 
Battles:
 
Capture of Mexico City (Winfield Scott)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
James K Polk-President
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
General Winfield Scott “Old Fuss & Feathers” (Vera Cruz & Mexico City)
Zachary Taylor “Old Rough & Ready” (Monterray)
Colonel Stephen Kearny (New Mexico & California)
John Slidell-diplomat to get Mexico to recognize American annexation of Texas
Nicholas Trist-negotiated Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
John Fremont “The Pathfinder of the West”-helped establish control over California & establish the “Bear Flag Republic”
 
 
Key Terms:
 
Bear flag Republic
Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience
Mexican Cession
Wilmont Proviso
Popular Sovereignty
Compromise 1850
Freeport Doctrine, Kansas/Nebraska Act
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo/Mexican Cession (California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming) $15 Million
-Rio Grande becomes border
-Will slavery expand to the new territories of the Mexican Cession? (Wilmot
 Proviso, Kansas Nebraska Act, Compromise of 1850, Freeport Doctrine)
-creation of the Free-Soil Party (from Conscious Whigs & Liberty Party)
APUSH                              War Chart: Civil War
Years:
 
1861-1865
Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Atlantic
Causes:
 
History of Sectionalism (economies of North & South, Compromise of 1820, SC Nullification Crisis, Abolition)
Texas Question
Mexican Cession
Wilmont Proviso, 1846
Compromise of 1850
Ostend Manifesto, 1852
Republican Party (Liberty Party merged with Conscious Whigs/Anti Slavery Democrats from Whigs to form Free Soil Party; Nativists; ), 1854
Underground RR
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Transcontinental RR Debate
Kansas Nebraska Act, 1854
Bleeding Kansas
Caning of Charles Sumner, 1856
Lecompton Constitution (Pro-slavery in Kansas)
Dred Scott v Sanford, 1857
John Brown’s Raid, 1859
Lincoln’s Election, 1860
 
Sides:
 
Union (U.S.) v Confederacy (S)
Advantages of the Union
-Advanced industrial system-could produce lots of war materials
-Much better transportation system-more RR’s
-More people, could raise army easier
-Sound banks and large cash reserves
 
Advantages of the Confederacy
-“Home Field Advantage”-fighting on land that they know well
-Fighting for a cause-committed to this fight
-At first, supported by British & French because those countries depended on Southern cotton—they will never join the war on the side of the Confederacy, though the Confederacy wants them too
-Superior leadership & Military Colleges
                -Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson
                -Citadel, Virginia Military Institute, US Naval Academy
 
 
Battles:
 
Fort Sumter
Bull Run
Monitor v Merrimack
Shiloh
Antietam
Gettysburg
Fort Wagoner
Vicksburg
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Cold Harbor (Grant’s determination to win causes him to keep sending Union troops into battle to defeat the Confederates—earns the nickname “the Butcher”)
Appomattox Court House
 
 
 
Key People:
 
Abraham Lincoln-President
Jefferson Davis-President of the Confederacy
Union Generals-George McClellen, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, George Meade, Ulysses Grant
-William T Sherman
-George Custer
-Winfield Scott “Old Fuss & Feathers”
-Robert G Shaw
 
Confederate Generals-Robert E Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, JEB Stuart, Nathan Bedford Forest, James Longstreet, Braxton Bragg, Joseph Johnston, PGT Beauregard, George Pickett, AP Hill
 
Copperheads
Scalawags
Carpetbaggers
Radical Republicans (Sumner & Stephens)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
Anaconda Plan
Conscription
Trent Affair
Border States
Ex Parte Merryman
Greenbacks (Legal Tender Act)
Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus
Cotton Diplomacy (British dependence on Southern cotton)
Morill Land Grant Act
Homestead Act
Pacific Railway Act
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-Appomattox Court House was the surrender
-Reconstruction
-Lincoln is assassinated, Andrew Johnson becomes President
-Conflict between President Johnson and Radical Republicans
-Southern rejection of Reconstruction (Redeemers, KKK/White League, Scalawags, Carpetbaggers, Solid South/Home Rule)
-Start of the Jim Crow Era (Jim Crow Laws, Black Codes, lynching, Plessy v Ferguson)
-South becomes more industrial (New South)
-Start of the 2nd Industrial Revolution & the Gilded Age & Age of Imperialism
 
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Spanish American War
Years:
 
1898
Cuba, Philippines
Causes:
 
Imperialism
Jose Marti revolution
Spaniard Valeriano Weyler’s mistreatment of Cubans (spurred American support of Cubans)
U.S.S. Maine
De Lome Letter
Yellow Journalism
Sides:
 
US (Cubans) v Spain
 
 
Battles:
 
Manila Bay
San Juan Hill/Kettle Hill
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
William McKinley-President
William Randolph Hearst-New York Journal
Joseph Pulitzer-New York World
George Dewey (Manila Bay)
Teddy Roosevelt (Rough Rider)
Rough Riders
Buffalo Soldiers
Emilio Aguinaldo
Boxers
Jose Marti
Alfred T Mahan
Charles Darwin (Social Darwinism)
 
Key Terms:
 
Teller Amendment (US promised to help Cuba gain independence from Spain)
Platt Amendment (made Cuba dependent on US)
Anti-Imperialist League
Hay’s Open Door Policy
Panama Canal
Big Stick
Spheres of Influence
Yellow Journalism
Jingoism
White Man’s Burden
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
Treaty of Paris
       -Spain recognized Cuba’s independence
       -PPG for $20 Million
America’s Empire spreads from Caribbean to Pacific
America has influence in foreign countries
US gets involved in the Mexican Revolution chasing Pancho Villa
APUSH                              War Chart: WWI
Years:
 
1914-1918
US-1917-1918
Western Front-(Belgium & France)
Eastern Front-(Boarder of Russian & Germany)
Italian Campaign-(boarder of Italy & Austria-Hungary)
Gallipoli (Southern Peninsula of Turkey [Ottoman Empire])
War at Sea (German subs [u-boats] & British Subs)
 
Causes:
 
Long-Term
-Militarism
-Alliance
-Imperialism
-Nationalism
 
Short Term
-Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
 
US In WWI
-Zimmerman
-Unrestricted Sub Warfare (Lusitania) & Sussex Pledge (Germany pledged not to attack merchant ships without warning)
Sides:
 
Allies (Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia, US) v
Central (Germany, Ottoman Empire, Austria Hungary)
 
Battles:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
President Wilson
Irreconcilables-(Hiram Johnson, William Borah, Robert La Follette, Henry Cabot Lodge)
American Expeditionary Force-John J Pershing “Black Jack”
Jeannete Rankin (first woman in Congress—voted against War)
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
-Selective Service Act 1917
-War Industries Board (coordinate military purchasing & ensure production efficiency)-Bernard Baruch
-Food Administration-Herbert Hoover
-Committee on Public Information-George Creel
-Espionage Act
-Sedition Act
-Schenck v US
-Great Migration
-Paris Peace Conference, 1917 (Big 4-Wilson, Clemenceau, Orlando, Lloyd George)
-Wilson’s 14 Points
-League of Nations
-Doughboys
-Trench Warfare
-Washington Naval Conference/Kellogg Briand Pact
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-Treaty of Versailles-1919 (Germany-War guilt, reparations, no military)
-Russia pulls out of WWI because of the Communist Bolshevik Revolution
-Wilson embarked on a 9,000 mile train trip across America to defend his League of Nations—suffered a stroke
-creates 1st Red Scare in US-A Mitchell Palmer & J Edgar Hoover
-Chicago Race Riots
-1919 IWW Seattle General Strike
-1920’s become a “Return to Normalcy” (time before Progressive Era; Laissez-Faire; Nativism)
-US remains isolationist (Nye Committee-found Americas banking and munitions interests, “merchants of death,” had brought US into WWI to protect their loans and weapons sales to Britain and France)
-Post-war Economic “Boom”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: WWII
Years:
 
1939-1945
US-1941-1945
European Theatre (Allies v Axis powers)
Pacific Theatre (US & Australia v Japanese)
Africa (Allies defending their colonies against the Axis)—Italy is close to N Africa
Asia (Allies defending their colonies against the Axis)
 
Causes:
 
Long Term
-Treaty of Versailles (allows Hitler to rise to power)
Short Term
-Hitler invades Poland (Appeasement Fails)
 
US in WWII
-Pearl Harbor
Sides:
 
Allies (Britain, France, Soviet Union, & US) v
Axis (Germany, Italy, Japan)
 
 
 
Battles:
 
Europe
-Stalingrad (turning point in East Europe)
-Operation Overlord/DDay (turning point in West Europe)
-Battle of the Bulge
 
Pacific
-Midway (turning point in Pacific)
-Iwo Jima
-Okinawa
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
President Franklin Roosevelt
America First Committee-Charles Lindbergh
Robert Oppenheimer
General Eisenhower (DDay)
General MacArthur (
Admiral Nimitz
General Patton (Africa)
Braceros-(Mexican temporary workers to fill agricultural shortage)
Navaho Code Talkers
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
-Good Neighbor Policy
-Appeasement of Hitler
-Atlantic Charter
-Destroyers for Bases
-Lend Lease
-Selective Service Act 1940 (first peacetime draft)
-Arsenal of Democracy
-Export Control Act (ban on trade with Japan)
-War Production Board (limited production of civilian goods)
-“Dr. New Deal” now “Dr. Win the War”
-Manhattan Project
-Island Hopping
-Kamikaze
-Rosie the Riveter
-Korematsu v US (Exec. Order 9066/Japanese Internment)
-Tehran Conference (Soviets agree to enter war against Japan—Soviet would invade Germany/2nd front in Europe [DDay])
-Yalta Conference (discussed partitioning Germany into 4 zones, agreed on a United Nations)
-Potsdam  Conference (agreed to unconditional surrender of Japan, hold war crimes trials, Stalin realized US tested A Bomb)
-San Francisco Conference (United Nations is created here)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-Ends Great Depression
-Cold War begins (US containment policy)
-Atomic Bombs begin Cold War; Arms Race; Space Race
-Germany is divided
-2nd Red Scare in US (HUAC, McClarran, McCarthy)
-Post-War Economic “Boom”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Korean War
Years:
 
1950-1953
Korea
Causes:
 
Containment of Communism
Sides:
 
United Nations (US)/South Korea  v China/North Korea
 
 
Battles:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
President Truman
General MacArthur (fired because he wants to invade China)
George Keenan’s Containment
Churchill’s “Iron Curtain”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
National Security Act 1947
Marshall Plan
Truman Doctrine
NATO
China becomes Communist
38th Parallel
DMZ
 
 
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-Communism Contained at 38th Parallel
 
 
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Vietnam Conflict
Years:
 
(1955)1965-1975
Vietnam, Cambodia/Laos
Causes:
 
Containment
-North invades South
Sides:
 
United Nations (US)/South Vietnam & North Vietnam
 
 
 
Battles:
 
Operation Rolling Thunder
Tet
Cambodia/Loas
My Lai
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
President Kennedy (supports Diem Regime)
President Johnson (Escalates war-Gulf of Tonkin)
President Nixon (further escalates the war-Cambodia & Laos)
General Westmoreland
Ho Chi Minh
Vietcong
Doves v Hawks
SDS & FSM (college protests & Civil Rights activists)
Security Advisor Henry Kissinger “Peace is at Hand”
 
Key Terms:
 
Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions
Ho Chi Minh Trail
“Living Room War”
“Hey Hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?”
“Poor Man’s War”
Kent State
1968 Democratic National Convention (helps get Nixon elected as Republican candidate)
Napalm/Agent Orange
“Peace with Honor,” Vietnaminization (Nixon)
Brinkmanship, Domino Theory, Massive Retaliation (Eisenhower)
Pentagon Papers
 
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath:
 
-Johnson’s Great Society/War on Poverty Suffers
-Communism is NOT contained at the 17th Parallel-entire country communist
-26th Amendment
-War Powers Act
 
APUSH                              War Chart: Persian Gulf War
Years:
 
 
Causes:
 
 
Sides:
 
 
 
 
 
Battles:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key People:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key Terms:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effects/Aftermath: