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Ms. Kaya

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Presidential Election Review

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Presidential Election Review
Presidential Elections Review
A Review of Elections
 
 
Year
 

Parties

Issues

1789
No parties – Washington
Washington was elected unanimously by the 69 electors
1792
No Parties – Washington accepted a second term
 
1796
Democratic-Republicans (Thomas Jefferson)
Federalists (John Adams) Electoral
Because of the electoral system Adams is elected President with Jefferson the Vice-President
1800
Democratic-Republicans (Thomas Jefferson) Electoral
Federalists (John Adams)
Jefferson and Burr both received 73 electoral votes.  The House of Representatives elect Jefferson in the “Revolution of 1800.”
1804
Democratic-Republicans (Thomas Jefferson) Electoral
Federalists (Thomas Pinckney)
Jefferson’s re-election was a certainty because of his success, especially with the Louisiana Purchase
1808
Democratic-Republicans (James Madison) Electoral
Federalists (Thomas Pinckney)
Independent Democratic-Republican (George Clinton)
The “Quids” tried to work against Madison who was Jefferson’s handpicked successor, but failed.  Federalist protested against the Embargo Act.
1812
Democratic-Republicans (James Madison) Electoral
Federalists (DeWitt Clinton)
The major issue was the War of 1812.
1816
Democratic-Republicans (James Monroe) Electoral
Federalists (Rufus King)
King was an early opponent of slavery.  Opposition to the War of 1812 by the Federalists practically ended the Federalist party.
1820
Democratic-Republicans (James Monroe) Electoral
Monroe was elected without opposition.
1824
Democratic-Republicans (Andrew Jackson) Pop./ Electoral
Democratic-Republicans (Henry Clay)
Democratic-Republicans (William Crawford)
Democratic-Republicans (John Q. Adams)
Because no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes the election was sent to the House of Representative.  Adams won with the accusation of a “corrupt bargain.”
1828
Democratic-Republicans (Andrew Jackson) Pop./ Electoral
National-Republicans (John Q. Adams)
Democratic-Republicans became the National-Republicans.  In a campaign filled with mudslinging Jackson’s victory was claimed as a victory for the common man.
 
1832
Democrats (Andrew Jackson) Pop./ Electoral
National Republicans (Henry Clay)
Anti-Masonic (William Wirt)
First time party conventions were used.  Jackson saw his victory as a mandate to dismantle the Bank.
1836
Democrats (Martin Van Buren) Pop./ Electoral
Whigs (Daniel Webster)
Whigs (William Harrison)
Whigs (Hugh White)
Jackson handpicked Van Buren.  Each of the Whig candidates represented a different region and they hoped to prevent Van Buren from gaining a majority of votes in the Electoral College – they failed.
1840
Democrats (Martin Van Buren)
Whigs (William Harrison) Pop./ Electoral
Harrison won with the “log cabin and hard cider” campaign, but was dead a month later.  This was the first election to use slogans and to try and appeal to the masses.  The most famous saying was, “Tippecanoe and Tyler too.”
1844
Democrats (James Polk) Pop./ Electoral
Whigs (Henry Clay)
Liberty Party (James Birney)
The main issue was Manifest Destiny, specifically the annexation of Texas and the addition of Oregon.  Slavery also became an issue.
1848
Democrats (Lewis Cass)
Whigs (Zachary Taylor) Pop./ Electoral
Free Soilers (Martin Van Buren)
Both major parties tried to avoid the slavery issue.  The Democrats ran without a platform.
1852
Democrats (Franklin Pierce) Pop./ Electoral
Whigs (Winfield Scott)
Free Soilers (John Hale)
Northern and southern Whigs split on their support for their candidate.  The election was marred by insults and allegations about all the candidates.  In the end the voters elected the dark-horse Pierce.
1856
Democrats (James Buchanan) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (John Fremont)
Know Nothings (Millard Fillmore)
Buchanan was nominated mostly because he was low profile. He supported the Compromise of 1850, opposed federal intervention in slavery.  Fremont represented the newly formed Republican party.
1860
Southern Democrats (John Breckenridge)
Northern Democrats (Stephen Douglas)
Republican (Abraham Lincoln) Pop./ Electoral
Constitutional Unionist (John Bell)
Republicans opposed slavery in the territories, but upheld slavery in the southern states.  Lincoln won when the other candidates split the vote on a regional basis.
 
1864
Democrats (George McClellan)
Radical Democracy (John Fremont)
Republicans + Union Party (Abraham Lincoln) Pop./ Electoral
The Democrats wanted a cease-fire and for a while it looked like it might be close.  However significant Union victories allowed Lincoln easily.
1868
Democrats (Horatio Seymour)
Republicans (Ulysses Grant) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans promised to continue Reconstruction.  Although Grant did not really campaign he was able to win the election based on his popularity and military record.
1872
Democrats (Horace Greeley)
Republicans (Ulysses Grant) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans called for more rights for women and an end to racial discrimination.  Greeley was considered a Liberal Republican who campaigned against the corruption of Grant.
1876
Democrats (Samuel Tilden) Pop.
Republicans (Rutherford B. Hayes) Electoral
Republicans wanted to continued control of the South.  A congressional committee gave a disputed election to Hayes after he promised to end Reconstruction in the South.
1880
Democrats (Winfield Hancock)
Republicans (James Garfield) Pop./ Electoral
Greenback Party (James B. Weaver)
After being in office a little over six months Garfield was assassinated.  Chester A. Arthur was the new President
1884
Democrats (Grover Cleveland) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (James Blaine)
President Arthur wanted the Republican nomination but had little support.  The main campaign issue was the integrity of the candidates
1888
Democrats (Grover Cleveland) Pop.
Republicans (Benjamin Harrison) Electoral
Prohibition (Clinton B. Fisk)
Harrison supported strong tariffs Cleveland was against high tariffs.  The election campaign was very low-key.  The election was very close.  Cleveland won the popular vote but lost in the Electoral College.
1892
Democrats (Grover Cleveland) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Benjamin Harrison)
Populists (James Weaver)
The issue of the tariff dominated the election.  Weaver was supported for his campaign to mint silver.
1896
Democrats (William Jennings Bryan)
Republicans (William McKinley) Pop./ Electoral
The Democrats supported free coinage of silver.  Bryan toured the country while McKinley stayed at home.  Bryan was portrayed as a socialist and a radical.
1900
Democrats (William Jennings Bryan)
Republicans (William McKinley) Pop./ Electoral
Prohibition (John C. Wooley)
McKinley was easily re-nominated and selected Theodore Roosevelt as his running mate.  The main issue for the Democrats, like 1896, was silver.  The bigger election issue was the independence of newly acquired territories.  Since the country had enjoyed a great deal of prosperity during the McKinley era he was re-elected.
1904
Democrats (Alton B. Parker
Republicans (Theodore Roosevelt) Pop./ Electoral
Socialist (Eugene Debs)
Prohibition (Silas Swallow)
In an election almost without issues the focus shifted to the personality of the candidates. 
1908
Democrats (William Jennings Bryan)
Republicans (William Taft) Pop./ Electoral
Socialist (Eugene Debs)
Prohibition (Eugene Chafin)
Taft was Roosevelt’s handpicked successor.
1912
Democrats (Woodrow Wilson) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (William Taft)
Socialist (Eugene Debs)
Bull Moose [Progressive] (Theodore Roosevelt)
It had taken over 400 ballots to nominate Wilson.  Roosevelt left the Republicans to form the Bull Moose party.  Splitting the Republican vote meant an easy win for Wilson.
1916
Democrats (Woodrow Wilson) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Charles Hughes)
Socialist (Allan. L. Benson)
Prohibition (J. F. Hanley)
Wilson was re-nominated and ran on a campaign of “He kept us out of the war.”
1920
Democrats (James Cox)
Republicans (Warren Harding) Pop./ Electoral
Socialist (Eugene Debs)
Farmer-Laborer (P. P. Christensen)
Harding was nominated after being selected by party bosses.  Cox selected Franklin Roosevelt as his running mate.  Cox opposed Prohibition and supported the United Nations.  Harding remained vague on the United Nations but supported Prohibition,
1924
Democrats (John Davis)
Republicans (Calvin Coolidge) Pop./ Electoral
Progressives (Robert La Follette)
The first election to use the radio.  Coolidge won despite revelations of corruption in the Harding administration.
1928
Democrats (Al Smith)
Republicans (Herbert Hoover) Pop./ Electoral
Smith was the first Catholic to run for President.  Hoover promised, “A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage.”  The election came before the crash and the end of the good times. 
1932
Democrats (Franklin D. Roosevelt) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Herbert Hoover)
Socialists (Norman Thomas)
Roosevelt promised to work on ending the Great Depression and won easily.  The people were tired of Hoover.
1936
Democrats (Franklin D. Roosevelt) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Alfred Landon)
Union (William Lemke)
Roosevelt ran on a platform of the New Deal, which was attacked by Landon.  Roosevelt won easily.
1940
Democrats (Franklin D. Roosevelt) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Wendell Wilkie)
The Republicans had been isolationists but Wilkie attacked Hitler.  Wilkie also attacked Roosevelt on the issue of a third term and called him a “tired, old man.”  Roosevelt carried most of the larger cities and won the election.
1944
Democrats (Franklin D. Roosevelt) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Thomas Dewey)
In the middle of the war there was no doubt Roosevelt would be re-elected, but he did make Truman the new Vice-President.
1948
Democrats (Harry Truman) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (John Dewey)
Progressive Party (Henry Wallace)
States’ Rights Democratic Party (Strom Thurmond)
The Democrats supporting Civil Rights legislation caused some, led by Strom Thurmond, to desert the party and form the Dixiecrats.  Truman was the underdog but ran a populist campaign, which eventually proved successful.  Truman was not declared the winner until the following day.
1952
Democrats (Adlai Stevenson)
Republicans (Dwight Eisenhower) Pop./ Electoral
Both parties had considered Eisenhower as a possible candidate.  Most of the Republican attacks came from Vice-President nominee Richard Nixon who gave the famous “Checkers speech.”
1956
Democrats (Adlai Stevenson)
Republicans (Dwight Eisenhower) Pop./ Electoral
Eisenhower was a very popular President and there was little the Democrats could do.  Eisenhower won in a landslide.
1960
Democrats (John Kennedy) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Richard Nixon)
(Senator Harry F. Byrd)
Kennedy was the first Catholic to be elected President.  Nixon ran on an anti-Communist platform and criticized Kennedy for being inexperienced.  The election also saw the first use of televised debates and Kennedy had a much better visual presence.  Kennedy won a tight race.
1964
Democrats (Lyndon Johnson) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Barry Goldwater)
Goldwater called for deep cuts in social programs, he was against civil rights legislation, and called for the possible use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam.
Johnson promised more social reform and won in a landslide.
1968
Democrats (Hubert Humphrey)
Republicans (Richard Nixon) Pop./ Electoral
American Independent (George Wallace)
Nixon promised to restore law and order – especially appealing after the problems of the 1960s.  The Democrats were split on the issue of the Vietnam War.  The Chicago riots really hurt the Democrats.
1972
Democrats (George McGovern)
Republicans (Richard Nixon) Pop./ Electoral
McGovern promised to end the Vietnam War.  Publicity associated the Democratic party with blacks, women, and radicals.  Nixon stressed foreign policy and managed to avoid the problems of Watergate.
1976
Democrats (Jimmy Carter) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Gerald Ford)
Carter had been governor of Georgia and in the wake of Watergate he promised no more secrecy in government. 
Ford was the only person to be President who not elected President or Vice-President.
1980
Democrats (Jimmy Carter)
Republicans (Ronald Reagan) Pop./ Electoral
Independent (John Anderson)
Carter was hurt by the Iranian hostage situation and high inflation.  Reagan had been governor of California and a Hollywood actor – he appealed to those who wanted less government.
1984
Democrats (Walter Mondale)
Republicans (Ronald Reagan) Pop./ Electoral
Libertarian (David Bergland)
Despite his age, Reagan enjoyed enormous popularity especially with the “Reagan Democrats.”  Mondale selected Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate – the first time a woman had been selected.
1988
Democrats (Michael Dukakis)
Republicans (George Bush) Pop./ Electoral
Libertarian (Ron Paul)
Vice-President under Reagan for 8 years, Bush benefited from Reagan’s record.  Dukakis was governor of Massachusetts and accused being soft on crime.
1992
Democrats (William Clinton) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (George Bush)
Independent (Ross Perot)
Perot promising to make the fix the deficit won 19% of the popular vote, mostly Republican votes.  Clinton and Gore became the first “baby-boomer” ticket.  Bush had held a commanding lead after the Gulf War but he was hampered by a poor economy.
1996
Democrats (William Clinton) Pop./ Electoral
Republicans (Bob Dole)
Reform Party (Ross Perot)
Perot won 8% of the popular vote but no electoral votes.  The over 7 million votes for Perot could have changed the result.  Clinton campaigned on the issues of a balanced budget and “values.”
2000
Democrats (Al Gore) Pop.
Republicans (George W. Bush) Electoral
Green Party (Ralph Nader)
The result of the election hinged upon the state of Florida, which had used ballots that could not be counted.  Eventually the Supreme Court decided the issue and Gore conceded Florida and the election. 
 
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